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Pharmaceuticals are a class of emerging pollutants that has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Pharmaceuticals enter the aquatic environment mainly via sewage. Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals have been shown to occur in considerably high amounts in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents and surface waters. These substances are excreted in urine and feces unchanged iwc fake watches or as active metabolites in high percentages after consumption and continuously discharged into domestic wastewaters. Residues of these drugs can therefore reach STPs in substantial amounts, escaping degradation, and are then released into surface waters. Environmental concentrations are low, but risks for human health and the environment cannot be excluded according to Zuccato and Castiglioni, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy.
Researchers believe, the potential of environmental impacts associated with pharmaceutical pollutants are of particular concern because they continually buy bedat co enter the aquatic environment and little is known about their environmental fate.
In such a scenario, it becomes extremely important to know their rate of assimilation, their biodegradation as well as their potentially toxic effects on biota, particularly aquatic organisms. There are few reports available which have shown the effects of pharmaceutical pollutants on aquatic organisms like bacteria and algae.
Cleuvers, M., Department of General Biology, Aachen University of Technology, Germany said, "Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment occur usually as mixtures hence an accurate prediction of the mixture toxicity is indispensable for environmental risk assessment." "When mixture toxicity of anti-inflammatory drugs like diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetylsalicylic acid was carried out using Daphnia and algae, it was noticed that toxicity of the mixture was considerable, even at concentrations at which the single substances showed no or only very slight effects" Cleuvers added. Cytopathology study was done by the team of scientist lead by Triebskorn, Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Germany. They studied effect on the liver, kidney, gills and gut of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using five different concentrations (1, 5, 20, 100 and 500 ��g/L) of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. The most prominent reactions induced by diclofenac were in the kidney and included severe accumulation of protein in the tubular cells, macrophage infiltration and structural alterations of the endoplasmic reticulum in the proximal and distal renal tubules. Furthermore, negative cytopathological effects were noticed fake franck muller crazy hours in the liver, gills and gut of the rainbow trout.
Though few studies were carried out in this direction, there is still scant information with respect to other aquatic organisms and pharmaceutical candidates till date. Pharmaceutical pollution is as important as the transmission of water borne infectious diseases when it comes to the human intake of such water. This is because endocrine-disrupting compounds, including those found in prescribed synthetic hormones may contribute to tumor formation in humans.
Fish is an important organism that gets exposed to these pollutants and it is also an important part of human diet. Consequently, it can become the major source of transmission of these pollutants to humans. Therefore, there is an urgent need to carry out detailed scientific studies to assess the effect of these pollutants on aquaculture as the global consumption of fish is increasing significantly. fake ulysse nardin watch There is also dearth of studies with respect to the screening of replica b r m bernard richards watch pharmaceutical pollutants and their possible effects on agricultural crops especially when the source of irrigation for agriculture is contaminated water.
Subsequently, there is a need to assess the toxic effects of pharmaceutical pollutants either as single substance or in a mixture, their mode of assimilation at all aquatic trophic levels as well as their biodegradation in zeno basel pilot oversized gmt online order to increase our understanding of the eco-toxicological characteristics and associated risk of these compounds when they reach the aquatic environment.
Authors: Dr. Jaimini Sarkar1 & Chiradeep Sarkar2. 1. Dr. Jaimini Sarkar, S.Ramaseshan Fellow, Current Science, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, India. jaimini_dhane@hotmail.com 2. Chiradeep Sarkar, Assistant Professor, Dept. Of Biotechnology, Khalsa College, Mumbai, India. chiradeep_sarkar@yahoo.com