breitling replica
History
Aberdeen Mercat Cross
The Castlegate and Union Street (c.1900)
Main article: History of Aberdeen
The Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years. The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen at the mouth of the river Don; and New Aberdeen, a fishing and trading settlement, where the Denburn waterway entered the river Dee estuary. The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I. In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocket, whose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians.
During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Aberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce laid cheap cartier santos demoiselle for sale siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308 followed by the massacring of the English garrison and the retaking of Aberdeen for the townspeople. The city was burned by Edward III of England in 1336, but was rebuilt and extended, and called New Aberdeen. The city was strongly fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644-1647 the city was impartially plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen. In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed a quarter of the population.
In the eighteenth century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779. The council began major road improvements at the end of the century with the main thoroughfares of George Street, King Street and Union Street all completed at the start of the next century.
A century later, the increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the existing harbour with Victoria Dock, the South Breakwater, and the extension to the North Pier. The expensive infrastructure program had repercussions, and in 1817 the city was bankrupt. However, a recovery was made in the general prosperity which followed the Napoleonic wars. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865.
The city was first incorporated in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen still has a separate charter and history, it and New Aberdeen are no longer truly distinct. They are both part of the city, along with Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of the River Dee.
Toponymy
Main article: Etymology of Aberdeen
Old Aberdeen is the approximate location of Aberdon the first settlement of Aberdeen; this literally means "at the confluence of the Don [ie. with the sea]" in relation to the local river. The modern name Aberdeen literally means between the Dee (the other local river) and Don. The Celtic prefix; "Aber-" means "the confluence of" in relation to the rivers.
Gaelic scholars believe the name came from the prefix Aber- and da-aevi (variation;Da-abhuin, Da-awin) - which means "the mouth of two rivers". In Gaelic the name is Obar Dheathain (variation; Obairreadhain) and in Latin, the Romans referred to it as Devana. Mediaeval (or ecclesiastical) Latin has it as Aberdonia.
Governance
Main article: Politics of Aberdeen
See also: List of Provosts and Lord Provosts of Aberdeen
Aberdeen City Council's logo with "Simplified" Coat of Arms.
Aberdeen is locally governed by Aberdeen City Council, which comprises forty-three councillors who represent the city's wards and is headed by the Lord Provost who is currently Provost Peter Stephen.
From May 2003 until May 2007 the council was run with a Liberal Democrat and fake rolex milgauss Conservatives coalition. Following the May 2007 elections the Liberal Democrats formed a new coalition with the Scottish National Party. The council consists of: 15 Liberal Democrat, 13 SNP, 10 Labour, 4 Conservative councillors and a single independent councillor.
Aberdeen is represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom by three constituencies: Aberdeen North, Aberdeen South and Gordon, of which the first two are wholly within the Aberdeen City council area while the latter also encompasses a large swathe of Aberdeenshire.
In the Scottish Parliament the city is represented again by three constituencies, all of which are solely within the council area: Aberdeen North, Aberdeen Central and Aberdeen South and by a further seven MSPs elected as part of the North East Scotland electoral region.
In the European Union, the city is represented by seven MEPs, as part of knockoff vacheron constantin watch the all inclusive Scotland constituency in the European Parliament.
Heraldry
Aberdeen City from Docks
Main article: Heraldry of Aberdeen
Symbols of the city typically show three castles, such as in the case of the flag and coat of arms. The image has been around since the time of Robert the Bruce and represents the buildings that stood on the three hills of Aberdeen; Aberdeen Castle on Castle Hill (today's castlegate); an unknown building on Windmill Hill and a church on St. Catherine's Hill (now levelled).
Bon Accord, is the motto of the city and is French literally for "Good Agreement". Legend tells that its use dates from the fourteenth century password used by Robert the Bruce during the Wars of Scottish Independence, when he and his men laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308.
The leopard has traditionally been associated with the city and its emblem can be seen on the city crest. The local magazine is called the "Leopard" and when Union Bridge was constructed in the nineteenth century small statues of the creature in a sitting position were cast and placed on top of the railing posts.
The city's toast is "Happy to meet, sorry to part, happy to meet again", this has been commonly misinterpreted as the translation of Bon Accord.
Geography
Main article: Geography of Aberdeen
Climate
Aberdeen is far milder than one might expect for its northern location. During the winter, especially throughout December, the daylength is very short, averaging 6 hours and 40 minutes between sunrise and sunset at the Winter Solstice. Though, as winter progresses, the daylength returns fairly quickly, having 8 hours and 20 minutes by the end of January. As summer begins, the days will be around 18 hours long, having 17 hours and 57 minutes between sunrise and sunset, with Nautical Twilight lasting the entire night. Temperatures at this time of year will be hovering around 17 C during the day.
Climate data for Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Year
Record high C (F)
17
(63)
17
(63)
20
(68)
23
(74)
24
(76)
26
(79)
27
(82)
27
(82)
24
(76)
21
(70)
16
(62)
15
(60) fake corum buckingham artisan collection
27
(82)
Average high C (F)
6
(42)
6
(43)
8
(46)
10
(50)
13
(55)
15
(60)
18
(64)
18
(64)
15
(59)
12
(53)
8
(47)
6
(44)
11
(52)
Average low C (F)
0
(32)
1
(33)
2
(35)
3 ball hamilton watches for sale
(37)
5
(42)
8
(47)
10
(51)
10
(50)
8
(46)
6
(42)
3
(37)
1
(35)
5
(41)
Record low C (F)
-18
(-2)
-15
(5)
-11
(12)
-3
(25)
-3
(26)
0
(33) fake bvlgari for sale
2
(37)
0
(32)
-2
(28)
-3
(25)
-15
(5)
-14
(7)
-18
(-2)
Precipitation cm (inches)
6.3
(2.5)
5.0
(2.0)
5.3
(2.1)
4.8
(1.9)
5.3
(2.1)
5.0
(2.0)
7.1
(2.8)
7.1
(2.8)
6.3
(2.5)
7.6
(3.0)
7.8
(3.1)
7.3
(2.9)
75.4
(29.7)