History It was known that John Radcliffe, physician to William III and Mary II of England, intended to build a library in Oxford at least two years before his death in 1714. It was thought that the new building would be an extension westwards of the Selden End of the Bodleian Library. Francis Atterbury, Dean of Christ Church thought a 90 ft room would be built on Exeter College land, and that the lower storey would be a library for Exeter College and the upper story Radcliffe's Library. Such plans were indeed prepared, by Nicholas Hawksmoor (fourteen 'Designs of Printing and Town Houses of Oxford by Mr. Hawksmoor' were among the drawings offered for sale after Hawksmoor's death), the plans are now in the Ashmolean Museum. Radcliffe's will, however, proved on 8 December 1714, clearly showed his intention that the library be built in the position it now occupies, stating: And will that my executors pay forty thousand pounds in the terme of ten years, by yearly payments of four thousand pounds, the first payment thereof to begin and be made after the decease of my said two sisters for the building a library in Oxford and the purchaseing the house the houses [sic] between St Maries and the scholes in Catstreet where I intend the Library to be built, and when the said Library is built I give one hundred and fifty pounds per annum for ever to the Library Keeper thereof for the time being and one hundred pounds a year per annum for ever for buying books for the same Library. A number of tenement houses fronting Catte Street, built right up to the Schools, some gardens, Brasenose College outbuildings and Black Hall occupied the site required for the library. A number of colleges became involved in the development of the cheap franck muller color of dreams site. An added problem was that Brasenose required an equal amount of land fronting High Street in return for the land they were being asked to give up. As a consequence, the Trustees had to negotiate with the owners and the tenants of the houses. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1720 that enabled any corporations within the University to sell ground for building a library. The negotiations dealing with Catte Street took over twenty years. The choice of architect had been considered as early as 1720 - Christopher Wren, John Vanbrugh, Thomas Archer, John James, Nicholas Hawksmoor, and James Gibbs were considered. In 1734 Hawksmoor and Gibbs were invited to submit plans. Hawksmoor made a wooden model of his design which is in the Bodleian. Gibbs was eventually chosen for the building. On 17 May 1737, the foundation stone was laid. The progress of the building and the craftsmen employed is detailed both in the Minute Books of the Trustees and the Building Book, which supplement information given by Gibbs in his Bibliotheca Radcliviana. An extract states: Mr. William Townsend of Oxford, and Mr. William Smith of Warwick, were employed to be masons; Mr. John Philipps to be the carpenter and joiner; Mr. George Devall to be plumber; Mr. Townsend junior to be stone carver; Mr. Linel of Long-acre, London, to be carver in wood; Mr. Artari, an Italian, to be their plaisterer in the fret work way; Mr. Michael Rysbrack to be sculptor, to cut the Doctor's figure in marble; and Mr. Blockley to be locksmith. Francis Smith, the father of William, was chosen as one of the masons, but died in 1738 and was succeeded by his son near the beginning of building. In 1739, John Townesend also succeeded his father cartier knockoff watches on the latter's death. The building was completed in 1748, and a librarian appointed, as was a porter. The opening ceremony took place on 13 April 1749 and soon known as 'the Physic Library'. Despite its name, its acquisitions were varied for the first sixty years, but from 1811 its intake was confined to works of a scientific nature. During the first half of the 19th century the collections included coins, marbles, candelabra, busts, plaster casts, and statues. These collections have since been moved to more appropriate sites. Between 1909 and 1912 an underground book store of two floors was constructed beneath the north lawn of the library with a tunnel connecting it with the Bodleian, invisibly linking the two buildings, something envisaged by Henry Acland in 1861. After the Radcliffe Science Library moved into another building, the Radcliffe Camera became home to additional reading rooms of the Bodleian Library. The freehold of the building and adjoining land was transferred from the buy bvlgari rettangolo Radcliffe Trustees to the cheap jaeger lecoultre reverso watches University in 1927. The interior of the upper reading-room houses a six ft. marble statue of John Radcliffe, carved by John Michael Rysbrack. It now holds books from the English, history, and theology collections, mostly secondary sources found on Undergraduate and Graduate reading lists. There is space for around 600,000 books in rooms beneath Radcliffe Square. Contemporaries found great irony in the fact that the iconoclast Radcliffe, who scorned book-learning, should bequeath a substantial sum for the founding of the Radcliffe Library. Sir Samuel Garth quipped that the endowment was bout as logical as if a eunuch should found a seraglio.3] Architecture Radcliffe Camera, viewed from the University Church The Radcliffe Camera looking south west in Radcliffe Square. Inside Upper Camera The building is the earliest example in England of a circular library. It is built in three main stages externally and two stories internally, the upper one containing a gallery. The ground stage is heavily rusticated and has a series of eight pedimented projections. The central stage is divided into bays by coupled Corinthian columns supporting the entablature. The top stage is a balustraded parapet with vases. The construction used local stone from Headington and Burford, which was then ashlar faced. The dome and cupola are covered with lead. The original plan was for a stone dome, but after building 5 ft. 8 in. of the stonework, it had to be removed and the design was changed. Inside, the original walls and dome were distempered but this was later removed, revealing the decorations to be carved in stone. Only the decorative work of the dome is plaster. Originally, the basement was an open arched arcade with a vaulted stone ceiling, with Radcliffe's coat of arms in the centre. The arcade arches were fitted with iron grilles, three of them were gates which were closed at night, and which gave access to the library via grand staircase. In 1863, when the building had become a reading-room of the Bodleian, the arches were glazed, a new entrance was created on the north side in place of a circular window, with stone steps leading up to the entrance. The area around the Library was originally partly paved, partly cobbled, and partly gravelled. In 1751 stone posts and obelisks surmounted by lamps were placed around the perimeter. All but the three at the cheap hamilton piping rock for sale entrance to Brasenose Lane were removed around hampden special railway replica watches 1827 when the lawns were laid and iron railings, which were removed in 1936, installed. References in popular culture J. R. R. Tolkien, author of The Lord of the Rings, remarked that the building resembled Sauron's temple to Morgoth on Nmenor. It also features in The Notion Club Papers. Elizabeth Kostova's novel The Historian includes a very intense scene set in the interior of the Radcliffe Camera. The Camera was used as a location in the films Young Sherlock Holmes (1985), Opium Wars (Yapian zhanzheng) (1997), The Saint (1997) and The Red Violin (1998), and was seen in The Golden Compass (2008). The building is also seen in the Inspector Morse television series, set in Oxford. See also Radcliffe Infirmary Radcliffe Observatory Radcliffe Science Library Radcliffe Quad References ^ Eric Partridge Slang To Day And Yesterday (1933) ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Radcliffe Camera". A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 3: The University of Oxford (1954). British History Online. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63870. Retrieved 13 January 2009.  ^ Otto L. Bettmann, A Pictorial History of Medicine (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1956), 192. ^ Simon Rose, December 9, 2001 tourist trail article Fellowship of the Ring/J.R.R. Tolkien Trail 24 hour museum. ^ Leonard, Bill, The Oxford of Inspector Morse Location Guides, Oxford (2004) p.202 ISBN 0-9547671-1-X. External links Map sources for Radcliffe Camera Photograph and short history from OxfordCityGuide.com Britain Express information Photos of Radcliffe Camera through different seasons Images of Radcliffe Camera Images of England details from listed building database (245749) Categories: 1749 architecture English Baroque architecture Domes James Gibbs buildings Libraries of the University of Oxford Visitor attractions in Oxford Grade I listed buildings in Oxford Grade I listed library buildings I am an expert from lug-butterfly-valve.com, while we provides the quality product, such as Lug Butterfly Valve Manufacturer , Lug Style Butterfly Valve, Lug Butterfly Valve,and more.